The Arab Spring was wave of protests, riots, and wars that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings.
By February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen. Uprisings had occurred in many other countries.
Sadly in many areas the hopeful Arab Spring has turned into an awful Arab Winter.
In West Africa a terrorist group called Boko Haram has taken control of parts of Northern Nigeria and neighbouring border areas. Boko Haram has become a part of so called Islamic state/ISIL.
Libya in North Africa has been one of the biggest problem places since the Arab Spring. Libya had been controlled by a ruthless dictator – President Gaddafi since 1969.
President Gaddafi had openly supported many international terrorist groups including the IRA.
Libya had been involved in terrorist attacks including bombing a passenger jet plane over Scotland. Killing 259 passengers and crew on board and 11 people on the ground.
In 2011 opposition groups began a civil war against Gaddafi; at first these groups were defeated by the superior military power of the government especially its air forces. However many innocent civilians were caught up in the fighting especially being from the air; the United Nations authorised member states to take action to protect civilians.
An international coalition including the UK provided air support and weapons to the rebels. In October 2011 Gaddafi and his senior leaders/close family members were killed.
After 2011 the situation deteriorated into what has been called the Arab Winter; rival groups could not agree a new government and now six different groups control different parts of Libya with constant fighting taking place.
A major source of money for these groups is people trafficking of refugees to Europe.
Many refugees are suffering appalling abuse at the hands of traffickers being forced into slave labour or into fighting for groups if they cannot afford to pay.
Migrants with money are often imprisoned by gangs until they have available boats to prevent them falling into the hands of rivals. Few migrants carry cash but their families at home can be forced to make transfers by online or mobile phone banking.
Libya is a major people smuggling centre for:
Libya has become a desperate and lawless place with many of the groups fighting for control; one area is even being controlled by a Libyan branch of so called Islamic State/ISIL.
What is meant by ‘The Arab Spring’?
What is meant by ‘The Arab Winter?
Think about what has happened in Libya and other African countries.
What happened in Chibok?
Look at the photo of Michelle Obama.
Discuss these three questions with a small group and prepare a 30 second ‘micro-presentation’ to share your answers with your class. A micro-presentation is just words, no images, posters or PowerPoints are to be used.